Corns are formed by pressure or friction on bony surfaces, such as a joint, and feature a central core that can cause discomfort if it put pressure on a nerve. Corns are classified into five categories, the most prevalent being hard, soft and seed corns.


A callus (or callosity) is a broad area of thickened, hard skin on the sole of the foot. It is frequently the result of an underlying issue, such as a bone malformation, a specific walking style, or incorrect footwear. Some people are predisposed to developing calluses due to their skin type. Older people have fewer fatty tissues in their skin, which may contribute to calluses on the ball of the foot.


Verrucas are plantar warts that typically appear on the soles of the feet or around the toe area. Caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), and is spread by direct person-to-person contact. Thrives in moist, damp conditions like swimming pools, locker room flooring, and community showers.

Thickened Nails

Thickened nails (Onychauxis) refer to the thickening or overgrowth of nails. It can affect both the toes and fingers and can be triggered by a variety of factors. The thickening of the nail may cause the nail plate to detach from the nail bed. Though fungal nails could present similar symptoms, it is not usually caused by a fungus.

Ingrown Toenails

An ingrown toenail (Onychocryptosis) occurs when a fragment of nail penetrates the toe's flesh. It can feel like a splinter, be considerably painful, inflamed, or infected. In severe instances, pus and blood may occur. Ingrowing toenails typically affect the big toenail. A nail curving (involuted or convoluted) into the flesh but not penetrating the skin is not an ingrowing toenail, yet it can be extremely painful and appear red and inflamed.

Fungal Nails

Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails, also referred to as tinea unguium. Onychomycosis characteristics include thicker or brittle nails, scaling beneath the nails, white or yellow streaks on the nail, with white flaky areas on the nail's surface, yellow spots at the bottom of the nail, and deformed nails.

Cracked Heels

Cracked heels, also known as heel fissures, develop when the soles and heels of the feet become dry, hard, flaky, or crusty. Fissures, or cracks, start to form in the skin. The skin of the heel may also turn yellow in colour. Although cracked heels are usually minor, they might cause pain, itching, or bleeding.

Athlete's Foot

Athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is a fungal skin infection of the foot. It typically develops between the toes and can cause itching, scaling, cracking, and redness. The condition is infectious and may be transmitted through coming into contact with infected surfaces.

Diabetic Foot

Diabetic foot is a variety of foot disorders triggered by high blood sugar levels, which harm the nerves and blood vessels in the lower extremities. People with diabetes feet can encounter numbness, tingling, discomfort, or loss of sensation in their feet. This can leave people oblivious of blisters, wounds, or sores, which may end up infected or ulcerated. Diabetic foot is a significant diabetes complication that requires sufficient care and regular treatment.